Monitoring studies help to address remaining doubts after the registration process. They assess aspects that field studies do not cover, e.g. single agronomic situations, especially vulnerable crops or semi-natural structures. Further factors considered by monitoring but not field studies are:
Monitoring studies are included into the regulatory context by Regulation 1107/2009/EC (Art. 6, 21, 67 and 68). As they include aspects beyond the “standard”. Therefore, they give information on differentiated scenarios.
An example for monitoring studies
Apple orchards highly depend on insect pollination. In early-flowering crops, honey bees often do not provide sufficient pollination and growers rely on non-managed bees and hoverflies for this ecosystem service. By monitoring the pollinator fauna in apple orchards, we assess the impact of insecticide applications on their diversity and abundance over the season. Taking into account other factors that influence pollinator populations like foraging plants or nesting habitat, it is possible to develop specific risk mitigation measures. Other questions may be addressed by questionnaires, online surveys or citizen science projects.
BeeSafe is co-chair of the ICPPR working group “Monitoring studies” and participates in developing recommendations for the design of monitoring studies.